The foundations of modern science were established between 600 BC – 450 BC in Miletus. Thales, who measured the duration of a solar eclipse, Anaximenes, and Anaximendros, who theorized about the nature of existence and Hypodames the first city planner, all were inhabitants of Miletus.

The city is still a very interesting cultural site having once been the foremost scientific and cultural center of its time. It was a colonial city but subsequently sent out up to ninety colonies of its own (mostly on the Black Sea coasts, Trabzon, Sinop etc.). It kept its power right up to the Persian invasion.

The ruins that we now see are mostly from Roman times. The ancient theatres with capacities for 15,000 people, the largest Roman Baths in Anatolia and the very big bazaar are proof of the magnificence that once was Miletus.